103 Essays on Infinite Lifespans   Raymond Kurzweil in a variety of ways and then observed the response of their brains, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although the neural pathways to their limbs had been inactive for many years, the pattern of their brain activity when attempting to move their limbs was very close to that observed in non-dis- abled persons. We  will,  therefore,  be  able  to  place  sensors  in  the  brain of a paralyzed person (e.g., Christopher Reeve) that will be programmed to recognize the brain patterns associated with intended  movements  and  then  stimulate  the  appropriate sequence  of  muscle  movements.  For  those  patients  whose muscles  no  longer  function,  there  are  already  designs  for ‘nanoelectromechanical’  systems  (NEMS)  that  can  expand and contract to replace damaged muscles and that can be acti- vated by either real or artificial nerves. WE ARE BECOMING CYBORGS We are rapidly growing more intimate with our technol- ogy.  Computers  started  out  as  large  remote  machines  in air-conditioned  rooms  tended  by  white-coated  technicians. Subsequently  they  moved  onto  our  desks,  then  under  our arms, and now in our pockets. Soon, we’ll routinely put them inside our bodies and brains. Ultimately we will become more nonbiological than biological. The compelling benefits in overcoming profound diseases and disabilities will keep these technologies on a rapid course, but  medical  applications  represent  only  the  early  adoption phase. As the technologies become established, there will be no barriers to using them for the expansion of human potential. In my view, expanding our potential is precisely the primary distinction of our species.