115 Essays on Infinite Lifespans   William Sims Bainbridge Artificial  Intelligence,  broadly  defined,  covers  not  only computerized vision and language, but a whole host of other approaches  such  as  probabilistic  planning,  rule-based  rea- soning,  case-based  reasoning,  logic  programming,  machine learning, neural networks [24;25] and even methods that go beyond  what  individual  human  minds  do,  such  as  genetic algorithms that mimic biological evolution. [26] Perhaps the major application area is finding patterns in vast sets of data. One often hears about knowledge extraction, implying that the computer can take crude data and refine it to meaning- fulness. Data fusion and data mining refer to assembling raw data from many sources and sifting them for discoveries that a human could never make, simply because the data are too vast and too fragmented. It is often said that a human being can hold only about seven things in mind at once, whereas modern information systems deal with billions. [27] Thus, AI intending to duplicate human abilities is currently in  hiatus,  while  AI  to  enhance  the  information  processing abilities of humans is being pursued aggressively. At the same time,  some  researchers  are  doing  fundamental  research  at the intersection of AI and Cognitive Science. For example, Lokendra  Shastri  [28–30]  of  the  International  Computer Science Institute in Berkeley, California, has been modeling how the hippocampal system in the human brain may record memories of specific episodes in the person’s life. Damage to the hippocampus deep within the human skull disrupts the ability of the person to learn life’s events, without neces- sarily blocking other kinds of learning such as language and skills. Shastri postulates that the hippocampus and related ele- ments of the brain hold memories of episodes as connections between a small number of concepts that themselves are stored elsewhere. “John gave Mary a book” may be represented by neural connections between a link to memories of John, a link to memories of Mary, a link to the concept book, plus verb