123 WILL ROBOTS INHERIT THE EARTH? Marvin L. Minsky, Ph.D. Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy and wealthy and wise. --- Ben Franklin Everyone wants wisdom and wealth. Nevertheless, our health often gives out before we achieve them. To lengthen our lives, and improve our minds, in the future we will need to change our bodies and brains. To that end, we first must consider how normal Darwinian evolution brought us to where we are. Then we must imagine ways in which future replacements for worn body parts might solve most problems of failing health. We must then invent strategies to augment our brains and gain greater wisdom. Eventually we will entirely replace our brains – using nanotechnology. Once delivered from the limi- tations of biology, we will be able to decide the length of our lives – with the option of immortality – and choose among other, unimagined capabilities as well. In such a future, attain- ing wealth will not be a problem; the trouble will be in con- trolling it. Obviously, such changes are difficult to envision. Many still argue that these advances are impossible, particu- larly in the domain of artificial intelligence. But the sciences needed to enact this transition are already in the making, and it is time to consider what this new world will be like.