78 Nanomedicine In the mid-term, the next 5 or 10 years or so, knowledge gained  from  genomics  and  proteomics  will  make  possible: (a) new treatments tailored to specific individuals, (b) new drugs  targeting  pathogens  whose  genomes  have  now  been decoded, (c) stem cell treatments to repair damaged tissue, replace  missing  function,  or  slow  aging,  and  (d)  biological robots made from bacteria and other motile cells that have had their genomes re-engineered and re-programmed. We could also see artificial organic devices that incorporate biological motors or self-assembled DNA-based structures for a variety of useful medical purposes. We may even begin to see targeted anti-aging treatments which address each of the seven specific forms of cellular damage that produce pathologies leading to natural death, as described by Aubrey de Grey and colleagues [2],  although  there  remain  many  institutional  obstacles  to direct progress via this conventional approach. [3] In the farther term, perhaps somewhere in the 10 or 20-year time frame, the first fruits of molecular nanorobotics should begin to appear in the medical field. My own theoretical work in  nanomedicine  has  concentrated  on  medical  nanorobot- ics  using  diamondoid  materials  and  nanoparts.  This  area, though clinically the most distant and still mostly theoretical, holds the greatest promise for health and life extension. With medical nanorobotics, we will gain the technological ability to perform specific internal repairs on individual cells in real time, thus largely eliminating all major causes of natural bio- logical death. The  early  theoretical  work  done  by  Drexler  and  Merkle, including most prominently a collection of bearings, gears, and other possible nanorobot parts, is well known. Possibly their most complex design was a nanoscale neon pump consisting of over 6,000 atoms, which was later simulated by compu- tational chemists at California Institute of Technology. [5] The device could serve either as a pump for neon gas atoms